There isn’t anything in history more exciting to study than ancient civilizations, including covering interesting Mexico facts, Peru facts and tales of other civilization, including getting to know their people who, regardless of how we feel about some of their behaviors, can leave the reader in awe of their fortitude and amazing accomplishments. Following we touch on just a small portion of their incredible lives and achievements.
Central/South America – Mayans
The Mayan’s were part of a Mesoamerican civilization, known for the only fully developed written language of pre-Columbian Americas. The Mayan’s were also known for their unique architectural skills, art, astronomical and mathematical systems. Initially established from 2000 BC to AD 250, numerous Maya cities achieved their highest rate of development during AD 250 to 900, continuing through the Post-Classic period until the Spanish arrived. The resilient Maya people made it through the Classic period downfall, the Spanish conquistadores and the Spanish colonization in the 16th century. It is a well known fact that the Mayans carried out human sacrifices for both religious and medical purposes.
Pre-Columbia America – Incas
The Inca Empire was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with the governing center of the empire being located in Cusco (modern day Peru facts). The Inca civilization began its history during the 13th century from Peru’s highlands and the last Inca stronghold was overcome 1572. In just over 300 years, this incredible civilization developed an empire that extended from present day Colombia through Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru all the way to Argentina and northern Chile. During the 15th Century they ruled in excess of 250 different peoples, around 9 million people in all. The Incas also constructed 30,000 kilometers of roads and all their magnificent architectural wonders without the use of basic technology like wheels, pulleys or even animals.
South America – Norte Chico
Central Peru’s Norte Chico civilization is said to be the oldest civilization in the Americas. The Norte Chico civilization comprised around 30 key population centers with the oldest dating from about 9,210 BC. The Norte Chico people were very peaceful (no known signs that they carried out human sacrifices, etc.) and it is believed that they sustained themselves and their city by cotton farming which was accomplished by building canals that they used to irrigate their cotton fields using river water. The cotton was then used to make textiles like bags, clothing and fishing nets.
North America – Aztecs
The Aztec civilization was made up of a number of ethnic groups in Central Mexico, especially the groups that dominated significant parts of Mesoamerica between the 14th and 16th centuries, and those that spoke the Nahuatl language. While most consider Aztecs to be savages, they were actually extremely artistic people; known for their sculpting, pottery and drawings, and they also had an appreciation for poetry and played team sports (Ullamaliztli was played with a rubber ball). More importantly this advanced civilization created a system for writing and keeping records that was highly developed. Mexicos facts about the Aztecs include that they had mandatory schools that separated male and female students. Most Aztecs weren’t defeated by conflict but by disease and some historians believe that the human sacrifices and cannibalism was due to a protein deficiency.
North America – Native Americans
Native Americans are composed of numerous, distinct tribes and ethnic groups in the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. Since the later part of the 15th century, when Europeans migrated to the Americas, there had been centuries of conflict and difficult adjustments between the Old and the New World societies. Most Native Americans lived on the land as hunter gatherer societies and told their rich, colorful history of their civilizations through oral traditions, giving Europeans the advantage of creating nearly all of the remaining historical records regarding the conflict. Eventually the Europeans retreated and the first Native American’s to sign a treaty with the new U.S. Government was the Lenape. In the 1830s the Indian Removal Act was signed by President Jackson which relocated Indians who lived in Southeast to the Midwest, supposedly for their own protection; today the forced emigration is referred to as the Trail of Tears. The Cherokee Indians were the first to become United States citizens.